name this book

February 25, 2007

help! i need to put a name to this book so I can add it to my list. 

I can’t remember the name of this book I read in 9th grade, it was about a pair of friends [boys] who attended a private school.  the plot included a friend suffering a nasty fall by the river, one of the boys going off to war with the winter stormtroopers who skied.  for some reason the private school sounded like it was in CT.  this is a classic book and for the life of me the title escapes me but it seemed to have seasons in the title???

 i am sure one of you out there have read this book.

deafness is an excuse

February 25, 2007

Today, I was talking with my sweetheart about something and was trying to use my deafness as an example when she said to not use it as an excuse.  There is a big difference between an example and an excuse.

I got a little huffy about it because as the old saying goes, “Emotions cloud judgement.” So, I took the time to clear out my emotions and began thinking about how I explained it. 

With a clearer judgement, I can begin to explain more clearly and less emotionally.

This is my blog about not using deafness as an excuse.

I suppose there are people who view certain comments by other people as excuses which can be understandable in certain cases. 

Such as calling in sick to work in the middle of the week when everyone at work has seen you perfectly healthy the day before and in reality, you just partied a little heartily the night before and had a killer hangover. That is an excuse.

For a different example, not showing up for work when there is a monster snowstorm dumping 10 inches of snow and the roads were not plowed.  That is a reasonable explanation to me, not an excuse, although in the loosest tongue, it could be viewed as a reasonable excuse.

I began to explore how deafness became an excuse which meant going back into history to understand this.  After all, there are many successful deaf people in today’s world in all kinds of prominent positions.

This was not always the case, for once upon a time in history, society once regarded those with deafness or muteness with a dismiss of a phrase “deaf and dumb”. 

This was due to the stigma that those who were born without the ability to hear or talk were considered inferior to those born with five senses.

Somewhere along the way in the development of humankind, those who were deaf began to show signs of intelligence. 

By using that intelligence, they were able to rise above certain stigmas imposed by society to become role models, or in extreme measures, a legend. 

Deafness is about seeing, not hearing so we naturally do not believe what we hear, we have no ability to hear anyways. [I will write a blog in the future about this]

We did not have a natural need to believe those who spoke to us and said “You can’t do this” or “You never will be able to do this”.

One noteworthy person is Helen Keller, although she was deaf and blind.  Her legacy is the perfect example of being a role model who also became a legend in certain communities.

Nowadays, there are many successfully deaf people in their own right who have risen above certain stigmas.  We have a deaf Miss America, a few well-known deaf performers, a deaf president of the only deaf liberal arts college in the world, and even an award-winning movie scripted about a deaf woman. 

Part of these opportunities to achieve recognization came about due to several factors, including technological advancements, educational advancements, among others.  Probably the most important factor above all else is humanity.

There were those among the hearing population who tirelessly lobbied against the “deaf and dumb” stigma such as Alexander G. Bell, Thomas Edison, and Gallaudet by creating an educational program for the deaf students, or by creating technologies to assist people with hearing loss.

So despite knowing all this, I still needed to explore why did such stigma come about.  The only explanation I could come up with is fear.  Ignorance is a form of fear.

In the race for the quest of the superior human, we often dismiss people with ailments, or lesser education as inferior to our quest. 

There are people who have earned multiple degrees from institutions for higher learning, working a significant role such as a neurosurgeon or an adviser but they still pale in comparison with those who were college dropouts leading some of the top Fortune 500 companies in the world.

These dropouts were dismissed with the stigma “lucky”.  We till consider them inferior because we view our own intelligence superior to the “lucky” ones.  This makes me wonder where the old saying comes from, “Ignorance is bliss.”  Those who say it must be scared to death.

So how did “using deafness as an excuse” come about?

I suppose there are more reasons than I am aware of but they all probably stem from a few basic characteristics.  Laziness, and ignorance to name a few.

to be continued…

storm on the cape

February 24, 2007

February 22 saw the first major snowstorm of the winter on the cape.  It was an unusual winter this year in comparison to last winter, my first winter on the cape. 

While the rest of the world north and to the east of us got battered by monster storms, the locals who live on Cape Cod year round as well out on the islands enjoyed a nice mild winter, rarely was a day when the temperature dropped below 35 degrees at noontime. 

Even more rarer a day on Cape Cod when the weather started turning in a snowstorm.  Snow had not fallen on the ground since the end of winter in March, 2006.

Alas, it was not my first snowstorm this winter as I had the fortune of being in York, PA during the much publicized fiasco of the Valentine’s Blizzard which left motorists stranded on the Interstate.

Snow started falling last night as I emerged from my work outside to enjoy my break.  The snowflakes were nice and soft, not quite fluffy but fluffed up from the howling winds synonomous with the cape winds.  After a year on the cape, I have begun to understand the cape winds are not just an oddity, we are directly in the path of the winds coming in from off-shore as it makes it way to the coast, some 30 miles away where the Bourne bridge ends.

There is an outdoor light that shines on a small corner of the parking lot from the corner of the building I work in.  Snow was falling nice and tight together, maybe 2 to 5 mm of space in between each snowflake.  Neverless, falling like a mad army of millions in a uniformed wave.  A gust of wind would rush down and grasp them up like waves crashing on the beach in directionless swirls.

Snow continued to fall though the night, covering the town in a nice clean blanket of white shadows as the headlights from my car traced the way home.  Only if I had a good camera to take a picture in the night with.  I turned in for bed wondering how many more inches would fall…

As it turned out, not that many.  We only got a measely inch of snow, maybe 2 in some parts but it was already beginning to melt by lunchtime the next day.

books in my lifetime

February 21, 2007

updated 2/21/07 [dang list keeps growing] 

I came across a blog listing books to read and thought I create one listing books I have read in my lifetime.  [This is in no particular order as I will expand it as I remember other books over the years as well as future books.]

  1. Lisey’s Story – Stephen King
  2. Salem’s Lot – Stephen King
  3. In the Time of Butterflies – Julia Alverez Recommended
  4. The Farming of Bones – Edwidge Danticat Recommended
  5. The Cat in the Hat – Dr. Seuss Recommended
  6. Lorax – Dr. Seuss
  7. Dr. Suess’s ABC: An Amazing Alphabet Book – Dr. Suess
  8. Green Eggs and Ham – Dr. Suess
  9. Oh, the Places You’ll Go – Dr. Suess
  10. How the Grinch Stole Christmas – Dr. Suess
  11. The Shining – Stephen King Recommended
  12. Cujo – Stephen King Recommended
  13. Love in the Time of Cholera – Gabriel Garcia Marquez
  14. The World’s Religions – Huston Smith
  15. Jonathan Livingston Seagull – Richard Bach Recommended
  16. April Fool’s Day – Bryce Courtenay Recommended
  17. Power of One – Bryce Courtenay Recommended
  18. On Writing – Stephen King
  19. The Parable of the Pipeline – Burke Hedges
  20. The Richest Man in Babylon – George S. Clason
  21. Desperation – Stephen King
  22. Bags of Bones – Stephen King
  23. The Negative – Ansel Adams
  24. All Quiet on the Western Front – Erich Maria Remarque Recommended
  25. Night – Elie Wiesel Recommended
  26. My Brother Sam Is Dead – James Lincoln Collier Recommened
  27. An Army at Dawn: The War in Africa – Rick Atkinson
  28. Gates of Fire: An Epic Novel of the Battle of Thermopylae – Steven Pressfield Recommended
  29. Angles & Demons – Dan Brown Recommended
  30. The Da Vinci Code – Dan Brown
  31. Wolves of Calla – Stephen King
  32. It – Stephen King
  33. Think and Grow Rich – Napoleon Hill
  34. The Stand – Stephen King
  35. The Dark Tower: The Drawing of the Three – Stephen King
  36. Everything’s Eventual – Stephen King
  37. Song of Susannah – Stephen King
  38. Are You My Mother? – P.D. Eastman
  39. The Cube: Keep the Secret – Anne Gottlieb & Slobadan D. Pesic Recommended
  40. Pinkerton, Behave! – Steven Kellogg
  41. A Rose for Pinkerton – Steven Kellogg
  42. The Regulators – Stephen King and Richard Bachman
  43. From a Buick 8 – Stephen King Recommended
  44. My Side of the Mountain – Jean Craighead George Recommended
  45. Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam – Bernard Edelman
  46. Paddington Bear – Michael Bond
  47. The Story of Babar: The Little Elephant – Jean de Brunhoff
  48. The Travels of Babar – Jean de Brunhoff
  49. Babar the King – Jean de Brunhoff
  50. Seven Firefights in Vietnam – John A. Cash
  51. Riding the Bullet – Stephen King
  52. Flags of Our Fathers – James Bradley 
  53. The Drawing of the Three – Stephen King
  54. Four Past Midnight – Stephen King
  55. Whiteout – Ken Follett
  56. Things Fall Apart – Chinua Achebe Recommended
  57. The Celestine Prophecy – James Redfield
  58. The Tenth Insight: Holding the Vision – James Redfield
  59. On the Road – Jack Kerouac Recommended
  60. The Grapes of Wrath – John Steinbeck
  61. East of Eden – John Steinbeck Recommended
  62. Cannery Row – John Steinbeck
  63. Tortilla Flat – John Steinbeck
  64. Ramona Quimby – Beverly Cleary
  65. Beezus and Ramona – Beverly Cleary
  66. Sphere – Michael Crichton
  67. Jurassic Park – Michael Crichton
  68. April Morning – Howard Fast  Recommended
  69. Ralph S. Mouse – Beverly Cleary
  70. Runaway Ralph – Beverly Cleary
  71. Ralph and the Motorcycle – Beverly Cleary Recommended
  72. The Dark Tower – Stephen King
  73. A Brief History of Time – Stephen Hawkins
  74. The Alchemist – Paulo Coelho Recommended
  75. By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept – Paulo Coelho
  76. The Hardy Boys: The House on the Cliffs #2 – Franklin W. Dixon
  77. The Hardy Boys: The Haunted Ford #44 – Franklin W. Dixon
  78. The Hardy Boys: The Secret of the Caves # 7 – Franklin W. Dixon
  79. The Hardy Boys: Mystery of Smugglers Cove #64 – Franklin W. Dixon
  80. The Hardy Boys: The Shore Road Mystery #6 – Franklin W. Dixon
  81. The Hardy Boys: The Clue in the Embers #35 – Franklin W. Dixon
  82. The Hardy Boys: The Shattered Helmet #52 – Franklin W. Dixon 
  83. The Hardy Boys: The Sinister Signpost #15 – Franklin W. Dixon
  84. Catch 22 – Joseph Heller
  85. Slaughterhouse 5 – Kurt Vonnegut Recommended
  86. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest – Ken Kessey Recommended
  87. Into the Wild – Jon Krakauer Recommended
  88. Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of Mt. Everest Disaster – Jon Krakauer 
  89. Hop on Pop – Dr. Seuss Recommended
  90. Fox in Socks – Dr. Seuss
  91. Horton Hears a Who! – Dr. Seuss
  92. One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish – Dr. Seuss
  93. Mutant Message Down Under – Marlo Morgan
  94. In a Sunburned Country – Bill Bryson Recommended
  95. Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream – Hunter S. Thompson Recommended
  96. Shadow Divers – Robert Kurson Recommended
  97. The Kite Runner – Khaled Hosseini Recommended
  98. The Great Brain – John D. Fitzgerald
  99. More Adventures of the Great Brain – John D. Fitzgerald
  100. The Great Brain at the Academy – John D. Fitzgerald
  101. The Great Brain Reforms – John D. Fitzgerald
  102. The Great Brain Does It Again – John D. Fitzgerald
  103. The Return of the Great Brain – John D. Fitzgerald
  104. What’s That Pig Outdoor?: A Memoir of Deafness – Henry Kisor  
  105. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone – J.K. Rowling
  106. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets – J.K. Rowling
  107. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix – J.K. Rowling
  108. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire – J.K. Rowling
  109. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban – J.K. Rowling
  110. Deception Point – Dan Brown
  111. Dragon Tears – Dean Koontz
  112. Watchers – Dean Koontz
  113. Mr. Murder – Dean Koontz
  114. The Door to December – Dean Koontz
  115. The Perfect Storm – A True Story of Men Against the Sea – Sebastain Junger
  116. The Lobster Chronicles: Life on a Very Small Island – Linda Greenlaw Recommended
  117. The Hungry Ocean: A Swordboat Captain’s Journey – Linda Greenlaw
  118. Adrift: Seventy-six Days Lost at Sea – Steven Callahan Recommended
  119. Lonesome Dove –  Larry McMurty
  120. A Walk in the Woods: Rediscovering America on the Appalachian Trail – Bill Bryson
  121. The Call of the Wild – Jack London Recommended
  122. Rich Dad Poor Dad: The Cashflow Quadrant – Robert Kiyosaki
  123. Sales Dog: You Do Not Have to Be an Attack Dog to Be Successful in Sales – Blair Singer & Robert Kiyosaki
  124. Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair That Changed America – Erik Larson
  125. Reef – Nora Roberts
  126. Honest Illusions – Nora Roberts Recommended
  127. The Tin Collectors – Stephen Cannell
  128. Shane – Jack Schaefer Recommended
  129. Hidden Prey – John Sandford
  130. Night Prey – John Sandford
  131. Mind Prey – John Sandford
  132. Secret Prey – John Sandford
  133. The ABC’s of Real Estate Investing: The Secrets of Finding Hidden Profits Most Investors Miss – Robert Kiyosaki & Ken McElroy
  134. The Patron Saint of Red Chevys – Kay Sloan
  135. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory – Roald Dahl
  136. James and the Giant Peach – Roald Dahl
  137. Fantanstic Mr. Fox – Roald Dahl
  138. Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator – Roald Dahl
  139. In the Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex – Nathaniel Philbrick
  140. Ahab’s Wife: or the Star-Gazer – Sena Jeter Naslund Recommended
  141. The Brethen – John Grisham
  142. The Last Juror – John Grisham
  143. The Rainmaker – John Grisham
  144. The Pelican Brief – John Grisham
  145. The Client – John Grisham
  146. The Green Mile – Stephen King
  147. Cold Mountain – Charles Frazier
  148. The Girl Who Loved Tom Gordon – Stephen King
  149. Shoeless Joe – Ray Kinsella Recommended
  150. To Kill a Mockingbird – Harper Lee
  151. Uncle Tom’s Cabin – Harriet Beecher Stowe Recommended
  152. Tommyknockers – Stephen King
  153. Insomina – Stephen King
  154. The Langoliers – Stephen King
  155. Captain’s Wife – Douglas Kelley
  156. Alice in Wonderland – Lewis Carroll
  157. Galilee – Clive Barker
  158. Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil – John Berendt
  159. Hiding My Candy: The Autobiography of the Grand Empress of Savannah – Lady Chablis
  160. The Legend of the Monk and the Merchant: Principles for Successful Living – Terry Felber
  161. Curious George – H. A. Rey
  162. Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever – Richard Scarry
  163. The Killer Angels – Michael Shaara Recommended
  164. Alienist – Caleb Carr Recommended
  165. The Angel of Darkness – Caleb Carr
  166. Twillight Eyes – Dean Koontz
  167. A Theif of Time – Tony Hillerman
  168. Skinwalkers – Tony Hillerman
  169. Mafia Princess: Growing up in Sam Giancana’s Family – Antoinette Giancana
  170. The Color of Water: A Black Man’s Tribute to his White Mother – James McBride Recommended
  171. A Light in the Attic – Shel Silverstein
  172. Where the Sidewalk Ends – Shel Silverstein
  173. Giving Tree – Shel Silverstein
  174. Falling Up – Shel Silverstein
  175. Deadspawn – Brian Lumley
  176. Necroscope II: Vamphyri – Brian Lumley
  177. Necroscope IV: Deadspeak – Brian Lumley
  178. Necroscope III: The Source – Brian Lumley
  179. Necroscope – Brian Lumley
  180. The Last Aerie – Brian Lumley
  181. The Secret of the Unicorn [Adventures of Tintin series]- Herge
  182. Explorers on the Moon [Adventures of Tintin series]- Herge
  183. Red Rackham’s Treasure [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  184. Christine – Stephen King
  185. Thunder Point – Jack Higgins
  186. Eye of the Storm – Jack Higgins
  187. Empire of the Sun – J. G. Ballard
  188. Chess for Dummies – James Eade
  189. Personal Finance for Dummies – Eric Tyson
  190. Marabou Stork Nightmares – Irvine Welsh
  191. Night of the Fox – Jack Higgins
  192. The Eagle Has Flown – Jack Higgins
  193. Storm Warning – Jack Higgins
  194. Jack and Jill – James Patterson
  195. Pop Goes the Weasel – James Patterson
  196. Along Came a Spider – James Patterson
  197. Kiss the Girls – James Patterson
  198. Flight 714 [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  199. The Seven Crystal Balls [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  200. Destination Moon [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  201. The Calculus Affair [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  202. Vineyard Blues: A Martha’s Vineyard Mystery – Philip Craig
  203. A Vineyard Killing – Philip Craig 
  204. Tintin in Tibet [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  205. Tintin and the Picaros [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  206. Land of Black Gold [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  207. Prisoners of the Sun [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  208. Tintin in America [Adventures of Tintin series] – Herge
  209. The Sun Also Rises – Ernest Hemingway Recommended
  210. A Farewell to Arms – Ernest Hemingway
  211. Moveable Feast – Ernest Hemingway
  212. The God of Small Things – Arundhati Roy Recommended
  213. The Cost of Living – Arundhati Roy
  214. The Poisonwood Bible – Barbara Kingsolver
  215. The Samurai’s Garden – Gail Tsukiyama
  216. Snow Falling on Cedars – David Guterson
  217. The Shipping News – Annie Proulx Recommended
  218. The Cider House Rules – John Irving
  219. Tuesdays with Morrie: An Old Man, an Young Man, and Life’s Greatest Lesson
  220. Rainbow Six – Tom Clancy
  221. The Hunt for Red October – Tom Clancy
  222. Red Storm Rising – Tom Clancy
  223. Flight of the Intruder – Stephen Coonts
  224. The Bourne Supremacy – Robert Ludlum
  225. I Heard an Owl Call My Name – Margaret Craven
  226. From the Mixed Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler – E. L. Konigsburg
  227. How the Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland’s Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medival Europe – Thomas Cahill Recommended
  228. Needful Things – Stephen King
  229. Dreamcatcher – Stephen King
  230. Gerald’s Game – Stephen King
  231. Night Shift – Stephen King
  232. Pet Sementary – Stephen King
  233. Rose Madder – Stephen King
  234. Storm of the Century – Stephen King Recommended
  235. Hearts in Atlantis – Stephen King
  236. Dolores Clairborne – Stephen King
  237. Human, All Too Human – Friedrich Nietzsche
  238. The Twillight of the Idols – Friedrich Nietzsche
  239. Discourse on Method and Meditations – Rene Descartes 
  240. Silent Spring – Rachel Carson
  241. Animal Farm – George Orwell
  242. The Last of the Mohonicans – James Fenimore Cooper
  243. A Child Called It – Dave Pelzer
  244. The Lost Boy – Dave Pelzer
  245. Mystic River – Dennis Lehane Recommended
  246. Five Against the Sea – Ron Arias
  247. Survive the Savage Sea – Dougal Robertson
  248. Romeo and Juliet – Shakespeare
  249. Lord of the Flies – Mary Hartley
  250. The Town and The City – Jack Kerouac Recommended
  251. The Red Balloon – Albert Lamorisse Recommended
  252. Clifford the Big Red Dog – Norman Bridwell
  253. The Incredible Journey – Shelia Every Burnford
  254. The 101 Dalmatians – Dodie Smith
  255. Pippi Longstocking – Astrid Lindgren
  256. Pippi in the South Seas – Astrid Lindgren
  257. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang – Ian Fleming
  258. On Her Majesty’s Secret Service – Ian Fleming
  259. Dance with Wolves – Michael Blake
  260. The Known World – Edward P. Jones
  261. Thorn Birds – Colleen McCullough
  262. The Talisman – Stephen King and Peter Straub
  263. The Black House – Stephen King and Peter Straub
  264. Eye of the Dragon – Stephen King
  265. The Plains of Passage – Jean M. Arel
  266. The Scarlet Letter – Nathaniel Hawthorne
  267. Stones from the River – Ursula Hegi
  268. The Joy Luck Club – Amy Tan
  269. A Separate Peace – John Knowles
  270. The Good Earth – Pearl S Buck
  271. Make Way for Ducklings – Robert McCloskey
  272. Homer Price – Robert McCloskey
  273. Blueberry for Sal – Robert McCloskey

To be continued…..

Updated as of 2/21/07

go for the record

February 19, 2007

i am halfway to breaking my record of 60 visits in a day with my two recent posts, deafness is an illness, and books in my lifetime.

if i write a blog, they will come…

tell your friends, bring your families, share the joy!!!

 update : as of 12 am EST, I am at 58 visits….

wahoo update : as of 12 pm EST, I reached 69 visits, broke the record, thank you everyone…

deafness is an illness

February 19, 2007

oldtimer
February 9th, 2007 at 9:16 pm

Some of your offbeat posts leave me cold, but I find it is perceptive of you to recognise that STS’ site has a message for all of us.

Deafness is considered the worst sense to lose, worse surprisingly than blindness. With deafness you are cut off from the world like living under water.

In the UK behind-the-ear hearing aids are supplied on the Health Scheme after a long battle by the Deaf Foundation to establish that deafness is an illness, and that hearing aids are not a “cosmetic device.”

This was a comment made in response to an article by the Barbados Free Press which blogged an article about my blog.  I found it amusing because of the use of the word.

True, deafness can be caused by an illness but it is not a form of illness.  Examples of possible “illnesses” or more accurately, ear infections would be

  • Otosclerosis
  • Meningitis

There are also causes such as organ failure, which can occur naturally or even self-inflicted such as

  • Eardrum punctures
  • Explosions which can rupture ear drums
  • Long-term exposure to loud noises
  • Nerve damage [which can prevent electrical signals from travelling to the brain]
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

In rare cases, genetics, but it must be understood that

  • Hearing parents can have deaf children
  • Deaf parents can have hearing children 

However in many cases, it is still a medial mystery as to other causes of deafness such as in my case which there is no obvious source. 

Click on this link for a comprehensive list  compiled by Gallaudet University Library, the only liberal arts college in the world for deaf people.  

I was simply born Profoundly Deaf, the only one in my family history.

Read my post, about sayonaratosilence  for further details.

presidents in my lifetime

February 19, 2007

Having been alive for only 32 years, I can only remember as far back as President Ronald Regan because he shared the same name as Ronald McDonald.

  1. Gerald Ford 1974 – 1977
  2. Jimmy Carter 1977 – 1981
  3. Ronald Reagan 1981 – 1989
  4. George H. W. Bush 1989 – 1993
  5. William J. Clinton 1993 – 2001
  6. George W. Bush 2001 – present
  7. To be continued…

That’s quite a grouping of presidents in comparision to the group of presidents during my grandparent’s lifetime having been born in 1914.

  1. Woodrow Wilson 1913 – 1921
  2. Warren Harding 1921 – 1923
  3. Calvin Coolidge 1923 – 1929
  4. Herbert Hoover 1929 – 1933
  5. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933 – 1945
  6. Harry Truman 1945 – 1953
  7. Dwight Eisenhower 1953 – 1961
  8. John F. Kennedy 1961 – 1963
  9. Lyndon Johnson 1963 – 1969
  10. Richard Nixon 1969 – 1974
  11. Gerald Ford 1974 – 1977
  12. Jimmy Carter 1977 – 1981
  13. Ronald Reagan 1981 – 1989
  14. George H. W. Bush 1989 – 1993
  15. William J. Clinton 1993 – 2001
  16. George W. Bush 2001 – present
  17. To be continued [Grandma is still living, bless her] …